A summary of the noise, carbon and air pollution impacts of Heathrow https://hacan.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/150121-Environmental-Impact-of-Heathrow.pdf
The ANIMA App
This is a Quality of Life survey app developed to gain a deeper understanding of the influence of the sound and visual environment on our day-to-day quality of life.
There is increased recognition of the importance of in-situ assessments thathelp researchers develop greater understanding of how people perceive their visual and acoustic environment. Inspired by soundscape studies, and in the wider context of the ANIMA European H2020 project, this Experience Sampling Method has been developed to ask people over the course of their daily lives about the quality of their acoustic and visual environment. The dedicated mobile application prompts the user to collect data a few times throughout the day (excluding overnight). After a notification, a participant is asked to record the soundscape over a minute. They then complete a few questions in relation to their sound and visual environment, and mood. The experiment lasts approximately two weeks depending on the number of notifications per day the participant finds acceptable.
Within the ANIMA project we are particularly interested in people who live in a wider airport region considering taking part. Your contribution to our research will entail downloading and using the app. At random times across the day, you will be prompted to engage with the app. All data collected will be totally anonymous (no personal data is gathered) and used solely for research purposes. By statistically analysing the responses of people living in airport regions, the ANIMA research team will gain greater understanding of what sound/visual factors contribute to different levels of perceived quality of life. Based on our findings, we will be in a better position to share knowledge with policymakers to enable them to improve the quality of life in residential areas.
Currently, the number of people exposed to a certain level of aircraft noise is calculated on the basis of a person’s registered residence. It is recognised that people’s daily activities naturally involve movements away from/towards home during the day and that they are, thus, exposed to higher/lower sound levels in their environment. As researchers, we would like to have a clearer view of overall movements, and the app asks, therefore, for permission to register your rough position all the time. Data is completely anonymous – we do not know whose position is being registered – and the location data are rounded to a 100x100m grid, thereby making it even more “uncertain” where the user actually was. You can naturally refuse to be followed, but we would really appreciate if you wouldn’t do so.
It is important to underline that we know that current levels of air traffic are extremely low compared to pre-pandemic levels. Thus, this research is not designed to capture experience of air traffic that is in anyway representative of previous aircraft volumes. The study is focused, instead, on how people’s interactions, activities and movements are affected by their soundscape. We are carrying out the study to enable us to determine the app’s usability and potential applicability when aviation is well on its way to recovery. By being involved, you will be providing us with snapshots of your experience – we have no intention to extrapolate or misinterpret the results.
A four pager from HACAN with everything you want to know about quieter planes: http://hacan.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Quieter-planes.pdf
The Court of Appeal ruled that the Government’s policy on a third runway at Heathrow was illegal. It found that the Department for Transport should have taken the climate change implications of the Paris Agreement into account when drawing up the National Policy Statement which outlined its plans for a third runway. The court invited the Government to review the climate section of the National Policy Statement.
What the court ruling means
(This is a longer piece than we normally put up but we feel the potential importance of the decision justifies it – if you want to send this story as a link, use https://hacan.org.uk/?p=5971 )
The National Policy Statement on Airports (NPS), drawn up by the Department for Transport, put forward the case for a third runway at Heathrow.
In June 2018 the House of Commons overwhelmingly voted in favour of the NPS by 415 votes to 119.
That gave Heathrow the green light to draw up detailed plans for the new runway. Those plans would need to be put to be put to a Public Inquiry but the principle of a third runway had been agreed by Parliament.
What the Court of Appeal found was that the NPS was unlawful because it had not taken into consideration the Paris Agreement and the commitment to achieve net-zero carbon emissions by 2050.
Here is the key paragraph of the judgement:
” Our decision should be properly understood. We have not decided, and could not decide, that there will be no third runway at Heathrow. We have not found that a national policy statement supporting this project is necessarily incompatible with the United Kingdom’s commitment to reducing carbon emissions and mitigating climate change under the Paris Agreement, or with any other policy the Government may adopt or international obligation it may undertake. The consequence of our decision is that the Government will now have the opportunity to reconsider the ANPS in accordance with the clear statutory requirements that Parliament has imposed (paragraph 285).”
The Court has not said there will be no third runway but is inviting the Government to reconsider and amend what the NPS about the third runway in order to take account of the Paris Agreement.
In normal circumstances that it what a Government would do so that the project would be delayed rather than abandoned. But it is widely assumed that the Prime Minister Boris Johnston, a long-standing opponent of Heathrow, will amend the NPS to kill off a third runway.
Transport Secretary Grant Shapps in a statement to Parliament yesterday, said: “The court’s judgment is complex and requires careful consideration. We will set out our next steps in due course”.
The NPS, for example, could be amended to allow expansion at other airports instead of the third runway at Heathrow. That is what Grant Shapps hinted at in his statement.
“We fully recognise the importance of the aviation sector for the whole of the UK economy. The UK’s airports support connections to over 370 overseas destinations in more than 100 countries facilitating trade, investment and tourism. It facilitates £95.2 billion of UK’s non-EU trade exports; contributes at least £14 billion directly to GDP; supports over half a million jobs and underpins the competitiveness and global reach of our national and our regional economies. Under our wider “making best use” policy, airports across the UK are already coming forward with ambitious proposals to invest in their infrastructure”.
The Government has said that it will not appeal to the Supreme Court to get yesterday’s decision overturned.
Heathrow will appeal to the Supreme Court but might struggle to overturn yesterday’s decision without Government backing.
It is expected that Heathrow will continue to draw up, and consult on, its detailed plans for a third runway while the appeal is being taken to the Supreme Court.
Except for the ruling on climate change, the Court found all other aspects of the NPS – on noise, air pollution etc – were lawful.
Appeal Court’s summary of its Judgement: https://www.judiciary.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/Heathrow-summary-of-judgments-26-February-2020-online-version.pdf
What will the Government do if it drops a third runway? It is clear from Shapps statement to Parliament that it will encourage expansion to take place at other airports. I suspect, too, that Heathrow will come back with plans to increase the number of flights using the airport by abandoning/reducing the half day’s runway alternation enjoyed by communities in West London. There might also be a push from the airlines for more night flights.
The re-organisation of Heathrow’s flight paths will continue as it has been driven by new technology not by the third runway.
The ruling could have implications for other large projects. The Court has ruled that projects must be assessed to ensure they adhere to the Paris Agreement and ate compatible with achieving a zero-carbon target by 2050. There are being questions raised today over the Government’s £28bn road building programme. And, although the Paris Agreement regulations are carried out on a national basis, other countries will be looking with interest at this judgement.
Details of how to email key ministers, your MP, and members of the Greater London Authority: briefing sheet
HACAN’s submitted response to the consultation: response
The Government published its Green Paper with proposals for its new aviation strategy at the end of last year which it will finalise and release in the second half of 2019. The consultation ended on 20th June 2019.
Read HACAN’s response: HACAN Consultation Response
Read the response of HACAN East: Aviation Green Paper HACAN East response
For more details of the consultation, plus HACAN’s briefing on it: https://hacan.org.uk/?p=5068
HACAN released a report challenging the aviation industry to take action to improve the noise climate for local communities. Noise Relief outlines practical measures which could be taken to achieve this.
John Stewart, chair of HACAN and co-author of the report, said, “Heathrow is drawing up plans for the biggest shake up of its flight paths since the airport opened in 1946. HACAN welcomes many of these plans, particularly those which will bring some respite each day to the many areas which are currently flown over all day long. But these new flight paths will not be in place for several years yet. Our report suggests measures which can be taken in the interim.”
The report advocates four measures be taken to assist residents:
- Stagger the point at which planes join their final approach path: at present 95% of planes now join within a narrow 4.8 nautical mile band;
- Increase variation in departure routes: over the last ten years or so aircraft taking off from Heathrow have increasingly been concentrated along narrow flight paths;
- Promote fairer night flight arrival distribution: night flights appear to vary their routes less than they did in the past;
- Reduce simultaneous overflight by both Heathrow and London City arrivals: there are days when parts of SE London are overflown by both Heathrow and London City aircraft, giving them at times over 50 planes an hour.
HACAN will now be lobby the industry for action on these measures
To read the full report: http://hacan.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/NoiseRelief.pdf
A new publication from HACAN arguing that the Green Paper is the ideal opportunity for the Government to re-examine the whole question of night flights at airports across the country: http://hacan.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/Night-Flights-Revisited.pdf
Each airport with over 50,000 movements is required by the European Union to publish a Noise Action Plan every 5 years. Heathrow has just published it latest one covering the years 2019 – 2023. It only focuses on a two-runway Heathrow since, if a third runway gets permission, it will not be up and running until about 2025/6. UK airports will not be required to produce Noise Action Plans if the UK leaves the EU but the Government is considering replacing them with Noise Reduction Plans: https://www.heathrow.com/noise/making-heathrow-quieter/noise-action-plan